Our Waterguide for water treatment

Technical knowledge and expertise
From our engineers

We have compiled explanations and definitions of the most important terms in water treatment. In our Waterguide, we have divided these explanations into categories; you can then use these to narrow down topics. Or simply use the technical term search and you will find what you are looking for. If you still have questions, please do not hesitate to contact us!

Activated carbon Filtrasorb 300

The activated carbon Filtrasorb 300 is a highly effective granulate activated carbon, which is used in water treatment to remove taste-producing and odorous substances, as well as dissolved organic compounds.

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AFM® NG

AFM® NG has a unique hydrophobic surface for the advanced adsorption of organics and microplastics. It is an inert and amorphous aluminium silicate (glass)..

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Alkalinity

Alkalinity refers to the ability of an aqueous solution to maintain its pH value when acid is added. It is also called acid binding capacity or buffer capacity.

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Ammonium and ammonia

The better known substance of the two is ammonia (molecular formula NH3, atomic mass 17 g/mol) and is present as a gas in the alkaline range.

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An Overview of our filter media

Here you can gain an overview of the application areas of our filter media.

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Anthracite N

Anthracite N is one of the filter materials that is found in nature. It is extracted from the sea at a depth of around 1500 m and then cleaned, crushed and sieved to removed unwanted foreign particles.

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Birm

This filter medium is an aluminium silicate that is coated with manganese dioxide. No chemicals are used for regeneration and water is sufficient for backwashing.

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Blowdown units

Herco blowdown units and bypass metering sections for controlled limitation of thickening in open cooling circuits and air scrubbers.

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Brackish water

Brackish water is a mixture of seawater and fresh water, with a salt concentration of up to 5,000 mg/l, and is mainly found in coastal regions.

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Calcium

Calcium is an alkaline earth metal (symbol Ca, atomic number 20, atomic mass 40 g/mol). It is one of the most common elements in the Earth's crust and is a major constituent of water in terms of quantity. Calcium is also an essential element for almost all living creatures.

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Carbon dioxide

In normal conditions, carbon dioxide (symbol CO2, atomic mass 44 g/mol, density 1.98 g/cm3) is a colourless gas with an acidic odour. Under high pressure, CO2 is liquid and can be stored in pressurised gas cylinders.

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Central concentrate supply

When using a CeCon 3000 central concentrate supply unit, the concentrate is delivered in bulk packs instead of single-use canisters.

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Central single pass reverse osmosis

Our high-quality reverse osmosis system solutions for your dialysis centre combine state-of-the-art technology with the highest safety standards.

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Central twin pass reverse osmosis

Optimum and maximum operational reliability is achieved by using a twin pass reverse osmosis system.

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Chloride

Chloride is the short name for the chlorine anion (Cl-). Chlorine (symbol Cl, atomic number 17, atomic mass 35.5 g/mol) is in the 7th main group and belongs to the halogen elements.

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Cleaning and descaling pumps

Cleaning and descaling pumps are used to remove limescale deposits from a wide range of industrial and commercial units.

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Conductivity

Conductivity is the ability of a conductive chemical substance or mixture of substances to conduct or transfer energy or other substances or particles in space.

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Conductivity meters

Conductivity meters measure the electrical conductivity of the demineralised water between two electrodes in µS/cm.

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Cooling water

Waste heat power from plants, industrial and commercial production sites must be dissipated, which means a cooling circuit is required.

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Dialysis media supply - connection system without dead zones

Conventional systems use branch lines to supply water to the dialysis machine. When the dialysis machine is not in use, the water in these dead-end branches remains stagnant at room temperature. The risk of germ multiplication increases with the time the system is not in use.

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Dialysis media supply - Panel for single station

Herco Wassertechnik GmbH media supply panels for single dialysis stations set themselves apart thanks to elegantly designed, state-of-the-art components in the colour of your choice and a ready-wired electrical supply for each bed.

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Dialysis media supply – Panel for double station

Herco Wassertechnik GmbH media supply panels for double dialysis stations set themselves apart thanks to elegantly designed, state-of-the-art components in the colour of your choice and a ready-wired electrical supply for two beds.

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Dosing

Ultimate precision when dosing biocides, gaseous biocides directly from the delivery containers, and antiscalant. Dosing is even reliable with high concentrations in low feed volumes.

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Drinking water

The German Drinking Water Ordinance (TrinkwV) defines “drinking water” as water that occurs in nature or has been treated (tap water) for the purpose of drinking, cooking or other domestic uses.

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Electrodeionisation

Electrodeionisation (abbreviated to “EDI”) or electrodialysis is a process for the continuous desalination of permeate from a reverse osmosis unit.

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Filox R

Filox R is a filter medium of which 75 – 85% consists of manganese dioxide. In many cases, the filter medium can be used without additional oxidation. This depends, however, on the oxygen present.

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Filtration

In the case of water content, a distinction is made between solid particles and dissolved substances. Solid particles such as suspended solids and granular particles are almost completely removed by filtration if the particle size and density are high enough.

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Flow measurement

Flow measurement, or volumetric flow measurement, involves the measurement of the passage of a liquid, gas or steam through a pipe.

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Hardness monitoring devices

Automatic hardness monitoring for the automatic monitoring of soft water downstream of the softening unit. A downstream reverse osmosis unit can be switched off automatically in the event of a hardness breakthrough.
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Iron

Like oxygen, silicon and aluminium, iron (symbol Fe, atomic number 26, atomic mass 55.85 g/mol) is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust (5%). Iron is known for its brown colour which it takes on when it comes into contact with oxygen.

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Iron and manganese removal

Iron and manganese removal are technical processes in water technology for removing iron and manganese from water.

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Lime-carbonic acid equilibrium

The lime-carbonic acid equilibrium (also known as calcite saturation) refers to the chemical equilibrium between dissolved lime/calcium carbonate (CaCO3, CaO oder Ca(OH)2), carbonic acid (H2CO3) and carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Loop without dead zones for dialysis

The loop without dead zones from Herco Wassertechnik GmbH for dialysis is made from plastic or stainless steel.

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Manganese

Manganese belongs to the group of metals (symbol Mn, atomic number 25, atomic mass 55 g/mol) and is found in very low concentrations (950 g/t) in the Earth’s crust (iron is present at 50 g/t).

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Membrane degasser

Membrane degassing is used to reduce the amount of dissolved CO2 in the permeate of a reverse osmosis unit, or potentially between the first and second stage of a reverse osmosis unit.

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Mixed-bed demineralisation

In addition to undissolved impurities (particles), most water contains varying concentrations of dissolved ions. Metals and hydrogen are present as cations (positive charge), acid residues and hydroxyl ions as anions (negative charge).

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Nanofiltration

Similar to ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, nanofiltration is a pressure-operated membrane separation process for filtering an impure solution.

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Oxygen

Oxygen (symbol O, atomic number 6, atomic mass 16 g/mol) is the most common element found in the Earth’s crust and the geosphere (48.9%). It is also the second most common element on the planet (30%; iron is the most common).

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pH value

pH is the abbreviation for “potential of hydrogen”. The pH value is defined as the negative decadic logarithm and is the opposite of the pOH value.

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Pressure booster units

Pressure booster units compensate for fluctuations in network pressure, such as those caused by changing flow rates. In addition, intelligent controllers prevent pressure surges in the system.

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Pressure measurement

Pressure refers to a force acting on a surface. Mathematically, this relationship is expressed by the quotient p = F/A, which contains the units Newton for the force F and m² for the surface area A.

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Processwater

In many production processes, water is used as a product or as a resource. Thus, process water is the water that is used in industry, in manufacturing processes, in energy generation or comparable applications.

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Rainwater

Rain is liquid precipitation from the atmosphere in droplet form and an essential part of the water cycle on Earth.

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Reverse osmosis

Reverse osmosis is a physical process for concentrating substances dissolved in liquids, in which pressure is used to reverse the natural osmosis process.

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Reverse osmosis with heat disinfection

You can only maintain a consistently high water quality if you regularly disinfect the entire water circuit, including the reverse osmosis unit.

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Sand and silex

Sand (silica) is the oldest filter material found in nature due to its many different forms (sand, silex, gravel).

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SDI

SDI is short for silt density index. It is used to express the amount of particles in the water. It is also used to predict the fouling tendency of a membrane.

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Seawater

Approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface consists of water, of which 97.4% is seawater and just 2.6% is fresh water. This means that the sea is the largest habitat on Earth.

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Silica

Silica is a product that is formed when silicon (symbol Si, atomic number 14, atomic mass 28 g/mol) and water react. Silicon makes up 27.7% of the Earth’s crust, and is the second most abundant element in the crust after oxygen.

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Softening

Softening units exchange the hardeners of calcium and magnesium ions for sodium ions using a strongly acidic exchange resin.

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Softening units

Softening units exchange the hardeners of calcium and magnesium ions for sodium ions using a strongly acidic exchange resin.

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Surface water

Surface water is water that is found directly on the surface of the Earth, is unbound and takes the form of streams, lakes or rivers, but also puddles.

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Tanks

Herco offers a range of permeate tanks in sizes up to 4,000 litres. All of the tanks are easy to maintain and are ready for different options to be installed.

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TDS and TSS

TDS stands for “total dissolved solids” and indicates the amount of dissolved substances in a liquid medium. The dissolved substances can be both inorganic and organic. The concentration is always specified in ppm (parts per million).

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Temperature

Temperature is a state variable with the symbol T. Germany uses the well-known degrees unit Celsius (°C), invented by the Swedish astronomer, mathematician and physicist Anders Celsius.

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TOC

The TOC value is the abbreviation for total organic carbon and is a measure for the total organic carbon in a sample. Inorganic carbons (TIC) such as carbonates are excluded from this measure.

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Turbidex

Turbidex consists solely of the mineral aluminosilicate (zeolites) and has remarkable sediment filtration properties.

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Ultrafiltration

Ultrafiltration is a filtration process from the field of membrane technology that can be used to separate and concentrate macromolecular substances and small particles from a medium.

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Ultrapure water

Many water processes have special requirements for water purity and water treatment equipment.

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UV disinfection

An environmentally friendly and easy-to-use method is to expose water to ultraviolet light (UVC). The UV exposure is approved according to the German Drinking Water Ordinance (Section 11, Part II on disinfection procedures) – it reliably kills bacteria and viruses.

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Wastewater

The Water Resources Act (WHG) defines wastewater as the water contaminated by domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural, or other use.

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Water treatment for dialysis

Dialysate consists of 99% water. That is why water is very important in dialysis treatment. Every year, up to 25,000 litres of dialysate are used to clean the blood of a dialysis patient.

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Well water

Well water is water that, as the name suggests, is obtained from a well and is formed by rainwater, lake water and river water that has seeped into the ground.

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